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This section of the Help Files covers Copyright Guidelines for Online Papers

Staff often ask if they can make journal articles, book extracts and other materials available in their Moodle courses so their students can easily access them. It must be remembered that most current materials might be expected to have copyright. This page explains what you are allowed to load or link to and what you are not.

WARNING: While we have tried to cover as many possibilities as we can, this list is not comprehensive and if you are in doubt about your rights to add material to Moodle or other online locations, then please contact your Subject Librarian.

For further information view the University of Waikato Copyright Information

Electronic Materials derived from print

Copyright Licensing Limited has negotiated generous provisions for universities and staff (not students) to make multiple copies of printed, copyrighted material by photocopying or making electronic copies (print to print or print to electronic). Teachers, for the purpose of instruction, and limited to the students in their classes may:

  • copy whole articles or more than one article from the same issue
  • copy up to 10% of a work
  • copy up to 15 pages of a single work in a collection of works.

Thus, scanned documents may be placed on a secure Moodle website for students to access. The copyrighted works could also be placed on a secure server, emailed to students or put on a CD. These materials must be accompanied by a copyright warning notice.

Online Journals & Electronic Databases

At the University, online journals are frequently accessed through electronic databases such as ProQuest, etc. Each database (or individual journal) will have a separate license agreement with the university which details how copyrighted material can be accessed and distributed. Some of these agreements are more restrictive and some less.

Can I upload electronic copies of material from the university databases into a Moodle paper?

It is recommended that the lecturer contact their Subject Librarian to determine the nature of the individual license agreement which exists between the university and the particular database.

Can I create a deep link between a Moodle paper and the actual article in the university database?

Again, this depends on the nature of the agreement between the university and the individual databases and journals. This process can be problematic as links to actual articles may be related to that particular online session and might be impermanent. If lecturers wish to pursue creating a deep link to an article, it is recommended that they talk to their Subject Librarian for support in exploring license agreements and coding these links. Alternatively, lecturers could simply give the students the citation or upload the actual material to the Moodle course if permissible (see above).

Can I create a shallow link between the Moodle paper and the library database?

Lecturers can link to the database (and not the actual article) and give students the citation so they can locate the article themselves. Alternatively, it may be possible to create a permanent link directly to the relevant journal volume and issue; however, consult with your Subject Librarian if in doubt.

How do I get a link for Moodle?

The Library Creating Links to Library Resources guide provides instructions on how to provide access to library resources within Learning Management Systems like Moodle. If you require help with others or with these, contact your Subject Librarian

Internet Material

Materials on the Internet or web (www) are in the public domain so I can use them where ever I want ...

NO! All material has been created by somebody and they have copyright unless they have vested it elsewhere. This includes all work that has been created and then made available for viewing over the Internet. You can of course just add weblinks to the material where it is or see below for other options.

Can I download an online resource and display on my online course?

As a general rule, assume any online material is copyrighted unless stated otherwise.

  • To add online materials to your course (as opposed to linking to them) try the following:
  • Approach the creator of the resource and ask for access to it.
  • Search for online materials that have a Creative Commons licence see
  • Look for materials created and shared by academics on sites such as Intute or Merlot. The WCEL team can provide advice on other high quality resources that are available for academics to use.

Can I create a link from my online paper to a website

Yes. Weblinks (also known as URLs or URIs) are just the addresses of web pages.

What about 'Deep' links?

There has been some controversy about the use of deep links. This is where you link to a page somewhere within the website that you are referencing and not the Home page.

For instance, the web address of the University Home page is is a 'shallow' or Home page link. The address of the University Library is and the University Copyright Information page is at Both of these last two are 'deep' links. The W3C has published some findings and there is also some information on Wikipedia relating to this issue.

The following is extracted from the CLL License agreement with related to excluded works

  • "Excluded Works" are works within the following categories:
  • Works downloaded from the internet
  • Works specifically stipulating that they may not be copied under a copyright licence of this nature
  • Printed music (including the words)
  • Loose maps and charts
  • Unpublished religious orders of service (notwithstanding that these may be available to Authorised Persons)
  • New Zealand newspapers
  • House journals and other free publications primarily for employees of commercial businesses, industrial undertakings or public services
  • Separate illustrations and/or photographs that are not published in conjunction with any other work so as to come within the provisions of clause 1.4 of the First Schedule (See 1a in Allowances and Limits below)
  • Privately owned documents issued for tuition purposes and limited to clientele who pay fees
  • Theses, dissertations and student papers (notwithstanding that these may be available to Authorised Persons)

Allowances and limits

The following is extracted from the CLL License agreement

  1. The limits of copying of Copyright Material pursuant to the Licence shall be:
    1. Copying of up to 10 per cent of a work (other than an article in a periodical publication) or one chapter of the work whichever is the greater
    2. Copying of up to 15 pages of the whole or part of a single work contained in a collection of works notwithstanding that such works may be separately published;
    3. Copying of the whole or any part of an article from a periodical publication or more than one article from the same periodical publication only if the articles relate to the same subject matter;
    4. Copying of the whole of an artistic work that is published in conjunction with any other work and is produced as part of a copy of that other work;Subject to prior written approval from CLL, copying of up to and including the whole of a work where sufficient copies of that work cannot be obtained within a reasonable time at an ordinary commercial price.
  2. The number of copies made of any one item of Copyright Material at any one time shall not exceed:
    1. The number needed to ensure that each Authorised Person and enrolled student intended to receive a copy (in one or more Academic Years) receives only one copy; plus
    2. The number needed to replace copies previously distributed which have been lost where the loser has satisfied an Authorised Person of the loss; plus
    3. Not more than a further 10% as spare copies.
  3. Compilations
    1. Passages of Copyright Material may be included in compilations (including course materials) provided each passage does not exceed the foregoing limits.
CLL stands for Copyright Licensing Ltd and it is a collective licensing organisation which provides centralised copyright clearance services for the copying of extracts from books, periodicals and journals for internal use within New Zealand institutions. It is jointly owned by Book Publishers Association of New Zealand and the New Zealand Society of Authors. Further information is available on the CLL website.

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